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uni'wissen 01-2016_ENG

achieved their goals and how efficiently they have worked. If possible, they add further learning intervals. As the phases of the learning cycle influence each other, Nückles aimed to show that procrastination goes hand in hand with a lower use of learning strategies. The educational scientist differentiates between the “vicious circle” of procrastination and the “virtuous circle” of self-efficacy, both of which are self-reinforcing: Students caught up in the vicious circle of procrastination are driven ever further into the blockade, are stressed out, and achieve poorer learning results. Those in the virtuous circle, on the other hand, steadily increase their self- efficacy. These learners believe in their own abilities, set clearly defined goals, and are willing to make an effort to achieve them by applying learning strategies that foster deep understanding, such as elaboration – and this leads ultimately to better grades. Visual Feedback Nückles uses behavioral therapy to help students out of the vicious circle of procrastination: He forces them to confront their fears of the perfor- mance situation. The educational scientist con- ducted a study on a group of medical students preparing for an exam to determine whether a visual representation of their own tendency to procrastinate would motivate them to learn more efficiently. Some of the participants received a “Assessment mechanisms like learning exercises or small tests are important.” uni wissen 01 2016 Students record how they perceive their learning behavior over the past week and set goals for the coming week in an electronic learning journal. Illustration: Svenja Kirsch 46 uni wissen 012016